Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение

«Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт радиологии и агроэкологии»

ОЦЕНКА РАДИОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ КОМПЛЕКСНОГО ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ СМЕСИ КОМБИКОРМОВ С ФЕРРОЦИНСОДЕРЖАЩИМИ ПРЕПАРАТАМИ В ХОЗЯЙСТВАХ ЮГО-ЗАПАДНЫХ РАЙОНОВ БРЯНСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

Губарева О.С., Исамов Н.Н., Цыгвинцев П.Н., Рясная Е.И., Алешкина Е.Н.

Радиация и риск. 2017. Том 26. № 1. С. 89-99. DOI: 10.21870/0131-3878-2017-26-1-89-99

На основании кластерного анализа дана оценка эффективности применения ферроцина в сельскохозяйственных предприятиях Брянской области в течение 2010-2015 гг. Показано влияние использования сорбента в пастбищный период на дойных коровах. Снижение загрязнённости молока и мяса радиоактивным цезием в производственных условиях может носить классический нисходящий или мультивариантный волнообразный характер. Причиной такого явления в течение 30-60 суток служит технологическая смена пастбищ, отли­чающихся по степени загрязнённости травостоя радиоактивным цезием. По данным прижизненной дозиметрии мышечной ткани тела животных, из-за разной скорости межуточного обмена, такое явление было менее выражено для мяса, чем для молока. Основную проблему представляет загрязнение кормов, содержание 137Cs в которых превышает ветеринарные допустимые уровни в 1,9-3,7 раза. Высокое содержание 137Сs в кормах определяет превышение гигиенических нормативов в продукции животноводства - молоке и молочной продукции. Несмотря на устойчивую тенденцию снижения доли загрязнённой продукции и стабилизацию радиационной ситуации в сельском хозяйстве через 20-30 лет после аварии на ЧАЭС, применение ферроцинсодержащих препаратов в краткосрочной перспективе остаётся актуальным.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=28780160

http://www.radiation-and-risk.com/en/year2017-en/issue1/1084-7

REMEDIATION OF AREAS CONTAMINATED BY CAESIUM: BASIC MECHANISMS BEHIND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AND EXPERIENCE IN APPLICATION

Fesenko S., Howard B.J., Sanzharova N.I., Vidal M.

In: IMPACT CAESIUM ON PLANTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT / Eds. K. Gubta, C. Walther.

ISBN: 978-3-319-41524-6 (Print) 978-3-319-41525-3 (Online) Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.

Pages 265-310.

There are many areas around the world contaminated with radiocaesium to different extents due to global fallout from nuclear weapons testing, radiation accidents or inadequate waste disposal practices. In recent decades, a wide range of options for remediation of these areas have been developed, tested and implemented to mitigate the potential doses in such areas. A large amount of data on the effectiveness of remediation options has been generated, together with information on ancillary factors such as technical feasibility and side effects. The chapter aims to provide information on available options for remediation of terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems contaminated with radiocaesium. An associated objective is to provide scientific information on the basic mechanisms which impact on effectiveness of the described remedial options.

http://www.springer.com/978-3-319-41524-6

EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION ON POPULATIONS AND ECOSYSTEMS

Geras’kin S.A., Alexakhin R.M., Oudalova A.A.

Chapter in Book: GENETICS, EVOLUTION AND RADIATION/Eds: Korogodina, V.L., Mothersill, C.E., Inge-Vechtomov, S.G., Seymour, C.B.

ISBN: 978-3-319-48837-0 (Print) 978-3-319-48838-7 (Online) DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-48838-7

Pages 237-250

Observations of effects of radiation exposure on populations and ecosystems are briefly discussed. The typical reactions of phytocenosis to irradiation at high doses are known to be reduction in species diversity, changes in species dominance, reduction in productivity and changes in a community structure. Irradiation of plants and animals with lethal and sublethal doses results in disruption of ecological relationships between the components of ecosystems. Such effects may act as a trigger of perturbation and lead to consequences that may differ radically from expected ones based on effects observed at the organismal level. In addition, considerable differences in a way of life and ecological niches occupied by different species lead to substantial distinction in doses absorbed by biota species, even when they all are presented in the same environment at the same time. It is especially evident in the case of α-emitting radionuclides. Radioactive contamination may result in the enhanced resistance in affected populations. However, there are radioecological situations where the elevated radioresistance has not evolved or persisted. The complexity and non-linearity of the ecosystem structure and functioning can lead to unexpected consequences of stressors’ effects which otherwise would appear harmless when they were assessed within a narrower context of the traditional organism-based approach. Therefore, the use of the ecological knowledge is essential for understanding the responses of populations and ecosystems to radiation exposure. Integrating of the basic ecological principles into the design and implementation of radioecological research is essential for prediction of radiation effects within the context of rapidly changing environmental conditions.

http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319488370

RADIATION EXPOSURE IN THE REMOTE PERIOD AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CAUSED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND GENETIC EFFECTS IN SCOTS PINE POPULATIONS

Volkova P.Yu., Geras’kin S.A. Kazakova E.A.

Scientific Reports 7, 43009 (2017); DOI: 10.1038/srep43009

Published: 22 February 2017

Even 30 years after the Chernobyl accident, biological effects of irradiation are observed in the chronically exposed Scots pine populations. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates above 50 mGy∙yr−1 caused oxidative stress and led to the increase of antioxidants concentrations in these populations. Genetic variability was examined for 6 enzymes and 14 enzymatic loci of 6 Scots pine populations. Dose rates over 10 mGy∙yr−1 caused the increased frequency of mutations and changes in genetic structure of Scots pine populations. However, the same dose rates had no effect on enzymatic activities. The results indicate that even relatively low dose rates of radiation can be considered as an ecological factor which should be taken into account for ecological management and radiation protection of biota species.

https://www.nature.com/articles/srep43009

ALLIUM-TEST AS A TOOL FOR TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVE-CHEMICAL MIXTURES

Oudalova A.A., Geras’kin S.A., Dikareva N.S. and Pyatkova S.V.

Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 784, Number 1 (2017) DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/784/1/012057

Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/784/1/012057

ГЕОИНФОРМАЦИОННАЯ СИСТЕМА ДЛЯ ОБОСНОВАНИЯ ВОЗВРАЩЕНИЯ В ХОЗЯЙСТВЕННЫЙ ОБОРОТ ТЕРРИТОРИЙ, ВРЕМЕННО ВЫВЕДЕННЫХ ИЗ ЗЕМЛЕПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ ПОСЛЕ АВАРИИ НА ЧАЭС

Шубина О.А., Титов И.Е., Кречетников В.В., Ряднов А.А.

Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. 2017. №01(55). С. 130-133 DOI: 10.23670/IRJ.2017.55.002

В восстановительный период после аварии наибольшую актуальность приобретает проблема возвращения в хозяйственный оборот территорий с высокими уровнями радиоактивного загрязнения, ранее выведенных из землепользования после аварии на ЧАЭС. Для решения этой задачи разработана геоинформационная система (ГИС), в основе которой лежит информация о текущем состоянии отчужденных земель. Построены электронные карты, позволяющие выполнить оценку необходимости проведения реабилитационных мероприятий и наглядно продемонстрировать эффективность их применения на загрязненных территориях.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=28116704



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