Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение

«Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт радиологии и агроэкологии»

АНАЛИЗ ИЗМЕНЕНИЙ ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКОЙ СТРУКТУРЫ ХРОНИЧЕСКИ ОБЛУЧАЕМЫХ ПОПУЛЯЦИЙ СОСНЫ ОБЫКНОВЕННОЙ

Казакова Е.А., Волкова П.Ю., Гераськин С.А.

Экологическая генетика. 2017. Т. 15. № 2. С. 50-61

Существует недостаточно данных о долгосрочных последствиях хронического облучения лесов, затронутых радиоактивным следом аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС. Материалы и методы. С помощью вертикального электрофореза исследован полиморфизм ферментов в популяциях сосны обыкновенной, произрастающих на загрязненной радионуклидами территории Брянской области. Активность ферментов в семенах сосны оценена методом спектрофотометрии. Результаты. Общая частота мутаций в изоферментных локусах увеличивается с мощностью дозы хронического облучения (7-130 мГр/год), так же как и некоторые характеристики генетической структуры популяций. Активность ферментов не зависит от уровня поглощенной генеративными органами сосны дозы. Заключение. Радиационное воздействие вносит вклад в изменения генетической структуры популяций сосны.

http://journals.eco-vector.com/index.php/ecolgenet/article/view/6767

http://dx.doi.org/10.17816/ecogen15250-61

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF POTABLE WATER CONTAINING SMALL AMOUNT OF TRITIUM OXIDE

O. A. Momot,

Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 784, Number 1

The problem of groundwater pollution with tritium in a vicinity of radiation-dangerous facilities in Obninsk is considered. The information on the specific activity of tritium in Obninsk water sources is provided. The formula for the calculation of the β-radiation absorbed dose from tritium ingestion is proposed, reflecting the biological behavior of tritium in a human body. To establish the extent of tritium effects on human, the health risk is assessed. It is shown that if the specific activity of tritium in drinking water amounts to 10 Bq/l, the risk of stochastic effects of radiation will not exceed the limit of the individual lifetime risk.

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/784/1/012040

BIOTESTING OF RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED FOREST SOILS USING BARLEY-BASED BIOASSAY

T. V. Mel'nikova,

Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 784, Number 1

Findings from radioactivity and phytotoxicity study are presented for soils from nine study-sites of the Klintsovsky Forestry located in the Bryansk region that were radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. According to the bioassay based on barley as test-species, stimulating effect of the soils analyzed is revealed for biological indexes of the length of barley roots and sprouts. From data on 137Cs specific activities in soils and plant biomass, the migration potential of radionuclide in the "soil-plant" system is assessed as a transfer factor. With correlation analysis, an impact of 137Cs in soil on the biological characteristics of barley is estimated.

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/784/1/012037/meta

ASSESSMENT OF ORGANOCHLORINE HYDROCARBONS TRANSFORMATION IN CONTAMINATED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND FOODSTUFFS UNDER GAMMA-RADIATION

T. V. Mel'nikova,

Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 784, Number 1

The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation – 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable – DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during the deep destruction of chlorinated xenobiotics molecules – 1,1,2-trichloro-4-methyl-1-pentene (C6H9Cl3); this substance was absent in the original fish samples. In the samples of irradiated fish there was not defined any OCP oxidation products or any intermediates that may be due to the conditions of sample preparation. To estimate toxicity of the secondary pollution, integral bioassays methods are proposed to apply. 

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/784/1/012036/meta

IN VITRO STUDY OF COMPLEXING PROPERTIES OF HIGH-MOLECULAR WATER-SOLUBLE POLYMER IN RELATION TO MODEL PROTEIN

V. V. Bydanova

Russian Agricultural Sciences, January 2017, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 57–60

The objective of this paper was to study in vitro the complexing ability of anionic polyelectrolyte in relation to model protein to develop a new type of polymeric feed additive for agricultural animals. It has been established that the investigated polymer with a molecular weight of 1 × 106 forms interpolymer complexes with model protein, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The degree of the formation of these complexes significantly depends on the acidity of the medium and the ratio of components. It has been established that these complexes are formed in a wide interval of the ratio of components, i.e., both in the excess of protein in relation to polymer and in the excess of polymer in relation to protein. It has been revealed that 2.0–2.5% of BSA is complexed under conditions that are similar to the conditions of ruminant forestomachs at reaction medium pH 5.0–6.5 and a polymer-to-protein weight ratio of approximately 0.3 × 10–3.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.3103/S1068367417010050

RADIOECOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF THE EXTRACTION PARAMETERS OF FISSION PRODUCTS AND ACTINIDES FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BREST-OD-300 REACTOR

S. I. Spiridonov, A. N. Perevolotskii, R. M. Aleksakhin, E. V. Spirin, G. N. Vlaskin

Atomic Energy, January 2017, Volume 121, Issue 3, pp 214–219

The aim of this work is to validate the extraction parameters of fission products and actinides from the spent nuclear reactor fuel of the BREST-OD-300 reactor on the basis of the concept of radio-ecological balance. The dose loads due to long-lived high-level wastes and natural uranium are compared for humans. Different variants of extraction of fissile materials U, Pu, and Np from spent fuel with residual content in the wastes 0.1–1% of the initial content and americium with residual content in the wastes 0.1–10% of the initial content with decay period of the spent fuel in the range 1–100 years were taken as initial data. It was found that for the indicated variants of reprocessing it is impossible to achieve radioecological balance for humans after 500 years without extracting 99Tc with residual content in the wastes not exceeding 5% of the initial content in the spent fuel. The time to achieve balance can be reduced to 300 years with additional extraction of 137Cs.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10512-017-0186-3

ОЦЕНКА КРИТИЧЕСКИХ УРОВНЕЙ СОДЕРЖАНИЯ Zn В ВЫЩЕЛОЧЕННОМ ЧЕРНОЗЕМЕ С ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕМ ТЕСТ-РАСТЕНИЙ ЯЧМЕНЯ И КОРМОВЫХ БОБОВ

Фригидов Р.А., Фригидова Л.М., Анисимов В.С., Санжарова Н.И., Анисимова Л.Н., Дикарев Д.В.

Агрохимия, 2017, № 3, С. 69–78

В вегетационном опыте на черноземе выщелоченном изучены закономерности миграции Zn в системе почва-растение в зависимости от концентрации металла. С использованием в качестве тест-растений ячменя и 2-х сортов кормовых бобов были установлены пороговые (критические) концентрации Zn в почве, при которых наблюдали превышение нормативов МДУ металла в хозяйственно-ценных частях урожая. Анализ зависимостей [Zn]раст-[Zn]почва показал, что ячмень накапливал в вегетативной массе цинк интенсивнее в 3.7 раза, чем кормовые бобы сорта Янтарные, и в 5 раз - чем бобы сорта Орлецкие. В зерне ячменя цинк накапливался в 2.8 раза интенсивнее, чем в семенах кормовых бобов сорта Янтарные, и в 3.3 раза - чем в семенах бобов сорта Орлецкие.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29008426

ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOMETRIC INDICES IN THE SECOND GENERATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

Makarenko E.S., Oudalova A.A.

Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 170–171. DOI: 10.1134/S2079059717020071

First Online: 24 March 2017

A series of morphometric indices was studied in Scots pine trees, which are the second generation of trees that were severely exposed during the Chernobyl accident to doses of 4–5, 10–20, and 80–100 Gy. The variability of the length and weight of the needles, curvature of the sprouts, tree height, and trunk circumference were studied in 2011–2014. Needle gigantism, one of the typical radiomorphoses, was observed in 2012 and 2013 in all groups of trees. Tree height and trunk circumference in groups of 4–5 and 10–20 Gy was significantly higher than in the control group.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS2079059717020071

ОЦЕНКА ВЛИЯНИЯ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОГО ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ МИНЕРАЛЬНЫХ УДОБРЕНИЙ НА СВОЙСТВА ПОЧВ, КАЧЕСТВО ПРОДУКЦИИ И НАКОПЛЕНИЕ 137Cs УРОЖАЕМ ЗЕРНОВЫХ КУЛЬТУР

Кузнецов В.К., Санжарова Н.И., Серегин С.В., Грунская В.П., Бровкин В.И.

Агрохимия, 2017, № 2, С. 74–82

На радиоактивно загрязненных угодьях в условиях многолетнего полевого эксперимента установлено, что систематическое длительное применение различных комбинаций и доз минеральных удобрений оказывало неоднозначное влияние на свойства почв, урожайность и накопление 137Cs в растениях. Экстенсивное возделывание зерновых культур в течение 24 лет способствовало деградации плодородия черноземных почв, снижению качества продукции и урожайности зерновых культур, возрастанию накопления 137Cs в растениях в 1.2-1.3 раза. Применение повышенных доз азотных и несбалансированных по элементам питания минеральных удобрений оказывало более выраженное отрицательное влияние на ряд агрохимических показателей почвы и накопление 137Cs в урожае культур по сравнению с вариантами без внесения удобрений.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=28776152

INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM CHRONIC EXPOSURE AND WEATHER CONDITIONS ON SCOTS PINE POPULATIONS

Geras’kin S., Vasiliyev D., Makarenko E., Volkova P., Kuzmenkov A.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2017., Vol. 24, No. 12, pp. 11240–11253. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8692-3

First Online: 15 March 2017

Over a period of 8 years (2007–2014), we were evaluating seed quality and morphological abnormalities in Scots pine trees affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The calculated dose rates for the trees at the study sites varied from background values at the reference sites to 40 mGy/year at the most contaminated site. We investigated whether radioactive contamination and/or weather factors could decrease the reproductive capacity or increase the frequency of morphological abnormalities of needles in pine trees. Scots pine seeds are characterized by high interannual variability of viability, which is largely determined by weather conditions. No consistent differences in reproductive capacity were detected between the impacted and reference populations. Brachyblasts with three needles were found only in the affected populations; however, their frequency was very low and only at the very border of significance at the p < 0.10 level.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11356-017-8692-3



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